I would like to quickly mention how threads are used while running instance of WCF service. Don’t bother if you are WCF guru!

So quick and deep into WCF

When using PerSession, once client did first call, instance of service implementation will be kept on server. Every client has it’s own session executed only on one thread at one point of time (thread is taken from ThreadPool). So, one client cannot run concurrent calls within one session. But you can change ConcurrencyMode to make this happen. In case of PerCall service instance will be disposed immediately after call is done.

ThreadPool uses available thread to run your service code. But if you start 1000 concurrent clients ThreadPool will allocate many threads, which involves resources, such as memory. So keep this in mind when designing scalable applications. PerCall is best choice for highly scalable services.

Calculator example, one we all like

I created simple Calculator service to show how treads are used by WCF service.

[ServiceBehavior(InstanceContextMode = InstanceContextMode.PerSession)]
public class CalculatorService : ICalculatorService
  private int _threadIdOnCreating = Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId;
  public int AccumulatedValue { get; private set; }
  public int Accumulate(int valueToAdd)
    AccumulatedValue += valueToAdd;

    "Accumulated: {0}. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:{1} CurrentThreadId:{2}",
   AccumulatedValue, _threadIdOnCreating, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId));

    return AccumulatedValue;

Calculator is very simple it allows to accumulate some value within session and also it logs some interesting threading information – id of service instance creator thread and id of current thread within method.


I ran Accumulate method with parameter 2 for five times and then created new client proxy and did the same. Below is output, which proves that server keeps instance of service implementation (proof is threadId on creation), but methods are ran on different threads, taken from ThreadPool (proof is threadId on run).

I'm calculator
Accumulated: 2. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:6 CurrentThreadId:6
Accumulated: 4. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:6 CurrentThreadId:7
Accumulated: 6. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:6 CurrentThreadId:6
Accumulated: 8. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:6 CurrentThreadId:7
Accumulated: 10. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:6 CurrentThreadId:6
Accumulated: 2. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:9 CurrentThreadId:9
Accumulated: 4. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:9 CurrentThreadId:6
Accumulated: 6. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:9 CurrentThreadId:9
Accumulated: 8. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:9 CurrentThreadId:6
Accumulated: 10. ThreadIdOnServiceCreating:9 CurrentThreadId:8

Hope this was interesting. Also continue your reading on instance/session management of WCF at msdn pages here if you would like to. Or read another short blog post my me.

BTW, this is just reposting of one of my answers at stackoverflow, but I thought it worth to have it here.

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